Source: K.R. Khosla, The States, Estates and Who's Who in India & Burma (Lahore: The Imperial Publishing Co., 1942), 427

M. N. Roy

An acknowledged authority on Marxian doctrine, Manabendra Nath Roy was born in 1893, under the name Narendranath Bhatterjee.

He joined the revolutionary movement in 1903 and was a prominent member of the Dacca Anushilan Samity. In 1906, he was prosecuted for political banditry.

When World War I broke out, he entered the Gadar Party and took a significant role in the negotiation with the Germans in 1914-’15 for the landing of arms in India. After this failed, he escaped from India to China to seek help from Dr. Sun Yat Sen, using many pseudonyms along the way. He assumed the name “Manabendra Nath Roy” in America and became a Communist, establishing the Communist Party in Mexico, lecturing on communist doctrines in South American states. Under the invitation of Lenin,  he took up a key position as head of the Eastern Department of the Communist International in Russia. Subsequently, he was sent to China as an advisor to the Communist Party there, but had to give up that work following a dispute with the Russian Communist leader Borodin. In 1927, he became the head of the Indian section of the Eastern University in Moscow. From 1922-1928, he also served as the editor of ‘Vanguard’ and ‘Masses’.

During the Sixth World International Communist Congress in 1928, he was expelled from the Communist International for exhorting a different line of action and criticising the resolutions passed. After this expulsion, he left for Germany and France before secretly landing in India in 1930 after 15 years of exile.  He was arrested in 1931 and sentenced to 6 years’ imprisonment for “waging war against the king”. Following his release in 1936, he joined the Indian National Congress but later left it to establish the Radical Democratic Party.

Sources: K.R. Khosla, The States, Estates and Who’s Who in India & Burma (Lahore: The Imperial Publishing Co., 1942), 427; S.C. Sarkar, Hindustan Year Book and Who’s Who 1940 (Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar & Sons, 1940), 400-401; S.C. Sarkar, Hindustan Year Book and Who’s Who 1944 (Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar & Sons, 1944), 479; S.C. Sarkar, Hindustan Year Book and Who’s Who 1950 (Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar & Sons, 1950), 468-469



India in Transition (Genève : J.B. Target, 1922)

What Do We Want? (Genève : J.B. Target, 1922)

The Future of Indian Politics (London : R. Bishop, 1926)

“I Accuse!”: From the Suppressed Statement of Manabendra Nath Roy on Trial for Treason before Sessions Court, Cawnpore, India (New York: Published for the Roy Defense Committee of India, 1932)

The Historical Role of Islam (An Essay on Islamic Culture) (Bombay: Vora & Co., 1938)

India’s Problem and its Solution, [no publishing information available]


Ideas of IndiaIdeas of India